python处理excel实例入门,技术干货丨Python轻松实现EXCEL转XML

首页综合资讯正文人气:319 ℃时间:2024-04-28 16:52:20

本文将结合作者项目实践,介绍如何将EXCEL文件通过Python转换为XML,以方便导入到Testlink中(Testlink仅支持XML文件的导入),并且顺便介绍一下Python常见的错误及解决方案,希望对大家有所帮助。

声明:文中转换工具涉及的代码是借鉴了其他帖子上的一部代码,结合本文作者项目的实际情况,编写而成。

输出EXCEL格式的测试用例文件

模板

测试用例使用如下模板输出,保存为XXX.xlsx文件,例如命名case.xlsx。

部分字段解释

功能点

一般EXCEL文件的一个Sheet页代表一个模块,在一个模块内部分为多个功能点,通过一个或多个测试用例对每个功能点进行一一覆盖,功能点字段就是对模块进行结构化划分的。

测试方式

该字段用以标识测试方式,是手工测试还是自动化测试,方便日后识别哪些用例是自动化实现的用例。

关键字

这个字段可以多种用途,例如用于识别产品形态,识别用例输出版本,或者用于识别质量属性,都是可以的。

作者项目中,是用于识别质量属性的,例如功能测试、性能测试、易用性测试等等。

重要性

填写P0/P1/P2,表示三个用例级别:高、中、低。

设计人员

该字段是用来标识用例的作者的,用于方便可追溯性或用例维护。

安装python 3

由于本文中的EXCEL转换为xml的工具是用python语言写的,所以,首先需要安装python运行环境,本文中用的是3.6.2。

若已经安装了Python 3,则跳过此步骤。

下载安装python

Python3可以去网上免费下载安装,地址为:

https://www.python.org/ftp/python/3.6.2/python-3.6.2-amd64.exe

配置运行环境

安装完python后,配置环境变量。

我的电脑-》属性-》高级系统设置-》高级-》环境变量,在用户变量部分,找到变量名为path的,点击编辑、新建,将Python安装目录及pip所在目录都添加到环境变量表中,此例中为:\Python3d6\Python36\和F:\Python3d6\Python36\Scripts\。

具体的步骤在本文中就不赘述了,需要的可以自己去网上找。

调试python及pip

配置好环境变量后,就在Cmd下运行python和pip,安装py脚本中涉及的python库。

但是作者在调试过程中,曾经遇到了如下的几个问题,供大家参考。

错误一

现象:

CMD命令行下,敲pip报错,敲python正常,具体信息如下:

C:\Users\Administrator>pip

Fatal error in launcher: Unable to create process using '"c:\python36\python3.exe" "F:\Python3d6\Python36\Scripts\pip.exe" ': ???????????

C:\Users\Administrator>python3

Python 3.6.2 (v3.6.2:5fd33b5, Jul 8 2017, 04:57:36) [MSC v.1900 64 bit (AMD64)] on win32

Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.

前置条件:

1)Python安装目录为F:\Python3d6\Python36\;

2)已经将F:\Python3d6\Python36\和F:\Python3d6\Python36\Scripts\配置到环境变量中。

排查思路:

第一步,经初步判断,感觉是路径有问题。

随后,将安装路径改为F:\Python36\,即将“Python3d6”这层文件夹去掉,并重新配置环境变量。

现象:

Cmd命令行下,敲python正常,敲pip仍然后报错。

报错如下:

C:\Users\Administrator>pip install pywin32

Fatal error in launcher: Unable to create process using '"c:\python36\python3.exe" "F:\Python36\Scripts\pip.exe" install pywin32': ???????????

第二步,排除环境变量配置问题。

cd到安装目录下,执行pip,仍然报错。具体报错信息如下:

F:\Python36\Scripts>pip install pywin32

Fatal error in launcher: Unable to create process using '"c:\python36\python3.exe" "F:\Python36\Scripts\pip.exe" install pywin32': ???????????

第三步,尝试把python整个文件夹从F盘移动到C盘,然后修改好环境变量。

执行pip,没有报错,问题搞定,打印信息如下:

C:\Users\Administrator>pip

Usage:

pip <command> [options]

Commands:

install Install packages.

download Download packages.

uninstall Uninstall packages.

......

错误二

现象:

python运行.py文件报错 :NameError name 'reload' is not defined。

相关代码:

import sys

reload(sys)

sys.setdefaultencoding("utf-8")

原因:

setdefaultencoding是python2的sys库里边的函数,Python3的sys库里面已经没有 setdefaultencoding() 函数,并且Python3系统默认使用的就是utf-8编码。

解决方案:

将sys.setdefaultencoding("utf-8")代码整行去掉即可。

错误三

现象:调用print函数出错,具体报错信息如下:

C:\Users\Administrator>python3 F:\case\operate.py

File "F:\case\operate.py", line 46

print 'str=', str

^

SyntaxError: Missing parentheses in call to 'print'

原因:

python2.X版本与python3.X版本输出方式不同造成的。

解决方案:

Print函数后面加上括号()。

Python2代码与Python3代码不兼容

其实将python代码用python3执行,很多问题都是由于python2版本和python版本代码不兼容导致的。

下面以实际的例子,介绍一种python2代码转换成python3代码的方法。

假设:

python2.X到python3.X转换文件2to3.py的路径为C:\Python36\Tools\scripts。

待转换的文件operate.py的路径为D:\python2to3。

CMD下执行如下命令,即可将该python2文件转换为python3文件:

python3 C:\Python36\Tools\scripts\2to3.py -w D:\python2to3\operate.py

出现如下打印说明转换过程成功:

C:\Users\Administrator>python3 C:\Python36\Tools\scripts\2to3.py -w D:\python2to3\operate.py

RefactoringTool: Skipping optional fixer: buffer

RefactoringTool: Skipping optional fixer: idioms

RefactoringTool: Skipping optional fixer: set_literal

RefactoringTool: Skipping optional fixer: ws_comma

RefactoringTool: Refactored D:\python2to3\operate.py

--- D:\python2to3\operate.py (original)

D:\python2to3\operate.py (refactored)

@@ -1,7 1,8 @@

# coding:utf-8

import os,re,xlrd

import sys

-reload(sys)

import imp

imp.reload(sys)

sys.setdefaultencoding("utf-8")

from easy_excel import easy_excel

@@ -43,7 44,7 @@

def actions_add_div(str):

if str:

new_action_str=""

- print 'str=', str

print('str=', str)

for str_index in str.split('\n'):

newline=str_index " " "</div> " "<div>" " " "</p> " "<p>"

new_action_str =newline

@@ -122,16 123,16 @@

if __name__ == "__main__":

- print os.path.abspath('.')

print(os.path.abspath('.'))

excellist=[]

#列出当前目录下的所有.xml文件

for fullname in iterbrowse(os.path.abspath('.')):

- print fullname

print(fullname)

obj1=re.compile(r'([\W\w]*)(\.xlsx)$')

for m in obj1.finditer(fullname):

- print m.group()

print(m.group())

excellist.append(m.group())

- print excellist

print(excellist)

for fileName in excellist:

fileName=fileName.split('\\')[-1]

file_data = xlrd.open_workbook(fileName)

@@ -139,12 140,12 @@

sheetList=[]

for index in range(sheetnum):

sheet_name=file_data.sheets()[index].name

- print sheet_name

print(sheet_name)

sheetList.append(sheet_name)

- print sheetList

print(sheetList)

for sheetName in sheetList:

test = operate(fileName, sheetName)

test.xlsx_to_dic(sheetName)

test.dic_to_xml(fileName, sheetName)

- print "Convert success!"

print("Convert success!")

os.system('pause')

RefactoringTool: Files that were modified:

RefactoringTool: D:\python2to3\operate.py

从日志中可以看出,转换过程中,对哪些行进行了修改一目了然。

如果某python文件不需要转换,则会出现如下的打印:

C:\Users\Administrator>python3 C:\Python36\Tools\scripts\2to3.py -w D:\python2to3\operate.py

RefactoringTool: Skipping optional fixer: buffer

RefactoringTool: Skipping optional fixer: idioms

RefactoringTool: Skipping optional fixer: set_literal

RefactoringTool: Skipping optional fixer: ws_comma

RefactoringTool: No changes to D:\python2to3\operate.py

RefactoringTool: Files that need to be modified:

RefactoringTool: D:\python2to3\operate.py

将EXCEL转换为xml

安装好python库后,将用例表格与脚本放入同目录(脚本代码在文末),如下:

注意:用例表格的名称需用英文,不要含有中文。

cd到表格和脚本所在目录,然后运行 operate.py 文件,打印如下:

D:\python2to3>python3 operate.py

D:\python2to3

D:\python2to3\case.xlsx

D:\python2to3\case.xlsx

D:\python2to3\easy_excel.py

D:\python2to3\easy_excel.py.bak

D:\python2to3\operate.py

D:\python2to3\operate.py.bak

D:\python2to3\__pycache__\easy_excel.cpython-36.pyc

['D:\\python2to3\\case.xlsx']

XX功能模块1

XX功能模块2

['XX功能模块1', 'XX功能模块2']

('str=', '1.步骤一\n2.步骤二\n3.步骤三')

('str=', '1.步骤一\n2.步骤二\n3.步骤三')

Convert success!

请按任意键继续. . .

转换成功,按照EXCEL的sheet页输出两个XML文件:case.xlsx_XX功能模块1.xml和case.xlsx_XX功能模块2.xml,可以用来导入到Testlink用例管理系统中。

代码easy_excel.py

# coding=utf-8

from xml.etree import ElementTree

from win32com.client import Dispatch

import win32com.client

import os

import sys

import imp

imp.reload(sys)

class easy_excel:

def __init__(self, filename=None):

self.xlApp = win32com.client.Dispatch('Excel.Application')

if filename:

self.filename = os.getcwd() "\\" filename

# self.xlApp.Visible=True

self.xlBook = self.xlApp.Workbooks.Open(self.filename)

else:

# self.xlApp.Visible=True

self.xlBook = self.xlApp.Workbooks.Add()

self.filename = ''

def save(self, newfilename=None):

if newfilename:

self.filename = os.getcwd() "\\" newfilename

# if os.path.exists(self.filename):

# os.remove(self.filename)

self.xlBook.SaveAs(self.filename)

else:

self.xlBook.Save()

def close(self):

self.xlBook.Close(SaveChanges=0)

self.xlApp.Quit()

def getCell(self, sheet, row, col):

sht = self.xlBook.Worksheets(sheet)

return sht.Cells(row, col).Value

def setCell(self, sheet, row, col, value):

sht = self.xlBook.Worksheets(sheet)

sht.Cells(row, col).Value = value

# 设置居中

sht.Cells(row, col).HorizontalAlignment = 3

sht.Rows(row).WrapText = True

def mergeCells(self, sheet, row1, col1, row2, col2):

start_coloum = int(dic_config["start_coloum"])

# 如果这列不存在就不合并单元格

if col2 != start_coloum - 1:

sht = self.xlBook.Worksheets(sheet)

sht.Range(sht.Cells(row1, col1), sht.Cells(row2, col2)).Merge()

# else:

# print 'Merge cells coloum %s failed!' %col2

def setBorder(self, sheet, row, col):

sht = self.xlBook.Worksheets(sheet)

sht.Cells(row, col).Borders.LineStyle = 1

def set_col_width(self, sheet, start, end, length):

start = 96

end = 96

msg = chr(start) ":" chr(end)

# print msg

sht = self.xlBook.Worksheets(sheet)

sht.Columns(msg.upper()).ColumnWidth = length

operate.py

# coding:utf-8

import os,re,xlrd

import sys

import imp

imp.reload(sys)

from easy_excel import easy_excel

class operate():

def __init__(self, ExcelFileName, SheetName):

self.excelFile = ExcelFileName

self.excelSheet = SheetName

self.temp = easy_excel(self.excelFile)

self.dic_testlink = {}

self.row_flag = 2

self.testsuite = self.temp.getCell(self.excelSheet, 2, 2)

#print 'self.testsuite=',self.testsuite

self.dic_testlink[self.testsuite] = {"node_order": "13", "details": "", "testcase": []}

self.content = ""

self.content_list = []

def xlsx_to_dic(self, SheetName):

while True:

testcase = {"name": "", "node_order": "100", "externalid": "", "version": "1", "summary": "",

"preconditions": "", "execution_type": "1", "importance": "3", "steps": [], "keywords": "P1", "author":""}

testcase["name"] = self.temp.getCell(self.excelSheet, self.row_flag, 5)

testcase["summary"] = self.temp.getCell(self.excelSheet, self.row_flag, 3)

testcase["preconditions"] = self.temp.getCell(self.excelSheet, self.row_flag, 6)

execution_type = self.temp.getCell(self.excelSheet, self.row_flag, 9)

testcase["keywords"] = self.temp.getCell(self.excelSheet, self.row_flag, 10)

testcase["author"] = self.temp.getCell(self.excelSheet, self.row_flag, 11)

if execution_type == "自动":

testcase["execution_type"] = 2

step_number = 1

importance = self.temp.getCell(self.excelSheet, self.row_flag, 4)

if importance == "基本功能" or importance == "P1":

testcase["importance"]="2"

elif importance == "拓展" or importance == "P2":

testcase["importance"] = "1"

while True:

step = {"step_number": "", "actions": "", "expectedresults": "", "execution_type": ""}

step["step_number"] = step_number

step["actions"] = self.temp.getCell(self.excelSheet, self.row_flag, 7)

def actions_add_div(str):

if str:

new_action_str=""

print(('str=', str))

for str_index in str.split('\n'):

newline=str_index " " "</div> " "<div>" " " "</p> " "<p>"

new_action_str =newline

return new_action_str[:-21]

step["actions"]=actions_add_div(step["actions"])

step["expectedresults"] = self.temp.getCell(self.excelSheet, self.row_flag, 8)

testcase["steps"].append(step)

step_number = 1

self.row_flag = 1

if self.temp.getCell(self.excelSheet, self.row_flag, 1) is not None or self.temp.getCell(self.excelSheet, self.row_flag, 5) is None:

break

# print testcase

self.dic_testlink[self.testsuite]["testcase"].append(testcase)

# print self.row_flag

if self.temp.getCell(self.excelSheet, self.row_flag, 5) is None and self.temp.getCell(self.excelSheet, self.row_flag 1, 5) is None:

break

self.temp.close()

# print self.dic_testlink

def content_to_xml(self, key, value=None):

if key == 'step_number' or key == 'execution_type' or key == 'node_order' or key == 'externalid' or key == 'version' or key == 'importance':

return "<" str(key) "><![CDATA[" str(value) "]]></" str(key) ">"

elif key == 'actions' or key == 'expectedresults' or key == 'summary' or key == 'preconditions':

return "<" str(key) "><![CDATA[<div> " str(value) "</div> ]]></" str(key) ">"

elif key == 'keywords':

return '<keywords><keyword name="' str(value) '"><notes><![CDATA[ aaaa ]]></notes></keyword></keywords>'

elif key == 'name':

return '<testcase name="' str(value) '">'

elif key == 'author':

return '<custom_fields><custom_field><name><![CDATA[设计人员]]></name><value><![CDATA[%s]]></value></custom_field></custom_fields>' % str(value)

else:

return '##########'

def dic_to_xml(self, ExcelFileName, SheetName):

testcase_list = self.dic_testlink[self.testsuite]["testcase"]

for testcase in testcase_list:

for step in testcase["steps"]:

self.content = "<step>"

self.content = self.content_to_xml("step_number", step["step_number"])

self.content = self.content_to_xml("actions", step["actions"])

self.content = self.content_to_xml("expectedresults", step["expectedresults"])

self.content = self.content_to_xml("execution_type", step["execution_type"])

self.content = "</step>"

self.content = "<steps>" self.content "</steps>"

self.content = self.content_to_xml("importance", testcase["importance"]) self.content

self.content = self.content_to_xml("execution_type", testcase["execution_type"]) self.content

self.content = self.content_to_xml("preconditions", testcase["preconditions"]) self.content

self.content = self.content_to_xml("summary", testcase["summary"]) self.content

self.content = self.content_to_xml("version", testcase["version"]) self.content

self.content = self.content_to_xml("externalid", testcase["externalid"]) self.content

self.content = self.content_to_xml("node_order", testcase["node_order"]) self.content

self.content = self.content self.content_to_xml("keywords", testcase["keywords"])

self.content = self.content_to_xml("name", testcase["name"]) self.content

self.content = self.content self.content_to_xml("author", testcase["author"])

self.content = self.content "</testcase>"

self.content_list.append(self.content)

self.content = ""

self.content = "".join(self.content_list)

self.content = '<testsuite name="' self.testsuite '">' self.content "</testsuite>"

self.content = '<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>' self.content

self.write_to_file(ExcelFileName, SheetName)

def write_to_file(self, ExcelFileName, SheetName):

xmlFileName = ExcelFileName '_' SheetName '.xml'

cp = open(xmlFileName, "w")

cp.write(self.content)

cp.close()

#遍历某个文件目录下的所有文件名称

def iterbrowse(path):

for home, dirs, files in os.walk(path):

for filename in files:

yield os.path.join(home, filename)

if __name__ == "__main__":

print((os.path.abspath('.')))

excellist=[]

#列出当前目录下的所有.xml文件

for fullname in iterbrowse(os.path.abspath('.')):

print(fullname)

obj1=re.compile(r'([\W\w]*)(\.xlsx)$')

for m in obj1.finditer(fullname):

print((m.group()))

excellist.append(m.group())

print(excellist)

for fileName in excellist:

fileName=fileName.split('\\')[-1]

file_data = xlrd.open_workbook(fileName)

sheetnum=len(file_data.sheets())

sheetList=[]

for index in range(sheetnum):

sheet_name=file_data.sheets()[index].name

print(sheet_name)

sheetList.append(sheet_name)

print(sheetList)

for sheetName in sheetList:

test = operate(fileName, sheetName)

test.xlsx_to_dic(sheetName)

test.dic_to_xml(fileName, sheetName)

print("Convert success!")

os.system('pause')

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